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Research articles

ScienceAsia 48 (2022):ID 524-531 |doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2022.074

A study of external morphological changes and the development time towards further understanding the biology of Elenchus yasumatsui Kifune & Hirashima (Strepsiptera: Elenchidae) male

Phinya Suraksakula, Jiranan Piyaphongkulb, Pornpairin Rungcharoenthongb, Suphachai Amkhac,*

ABSTRACT:     Elenchus yasumatsui Kifune & Hirashima (Strepsiptera: Elenchidae) is an endoparasitoid of a key rice pest, the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (St?l). There are few biological studies available on this species because of difficulties in making observations. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate the morphological changes and the development periods of the E. yasumatsui male. Parasitized N. lugens by E. yasumatsui males and females were collected from rice fields and transferred to the laboratory as pairs in mating tubes. After the emerging of triungulins, 250 uninfected N. lugens were placed as hosts for 24 h and kept separately. From daily dissections, it was observed that the triungulins had elongated and flattened bodies with distinct appendages. From 2nd to 4th instar, their shape became maggot-like with an increase in size and slight changes in morphology. The pupae had sac covering its body with a dark brown pupal cap. Results also revealed that 99 triungulins, from 542, were able to parasitize and develop inside the hosts. The periods of time taken to develop into 1st instar (n = 59), 2nd instar (n = 1), 3rd instar (n = 23), 4th instar (n = 11), pupae (n = 4), and adult (n = 1) were 2?6, 4, 4?7, 4?7, 6?7, and 14 days, respectively. The critical information derived from one survivor of E. yasumatsui adult showed that the larval growth period was 10 days and the pupation time since the pupal cap extruding from the host abdomen was 3 days. During this period the adult male lasted 4.1 h. These data can be used to elucidate the actual biology of E. yasumatsui for enhancing the success of biological control in N. lugens populations.

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a International Graduate Program in Agricultural Research and Development, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140 Thailand
b Department of Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140 Thailand
c Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom 73140 Thailand

* Corresponding author, E-mail:

Received 8 Nov 2021, Accepted 27 Feb 2022