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Research articles

ScienceAsia 49 (2023):ID 94-100 |doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2023.135

Archidendron jiringa seed peel extract in the removal of lead from synthetic residual water using coagulation-flocculation process

Sarah Nadira Hurairaha, Nur Syaza Mohamad Fahimia, Azhar Abdul Halima,*, Marlia Mohd Hanafiaha,b, Nurulhana Nordina, Nurul Ain Ab Jalila, Zawawi Daudc

ABSTRACT:     Archidendron jiringa seed peel extract was used to aid the coagulation-flocculation process to ultimately remove lead from synthetic residual water. The effectiveness of this method was studied to obtain an alternative approach that is easy to be handled with low cost and energy in removing the lead from residual water. Optimum parameters were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of lead removal, including pH, alum dose, and A. jiringa seed peel extract dose. A study on the coagulation-flocculation process with and without the aid of A. jiringa was also conducted. The optimum pH, the alum dose, and the A. jiringa seed peel extract dose were 9.0, 2.44 g/l, and 60.2 mg/l, respectively. The percentage of lead removal with the aid of A. jiringa seed peel extract was 79%, and the percentage was dropped to only 47% without the extract. A significantly higher rate in the coagulation-flocculation process due to the presence of A. jiringa seed peel extract proved its effectiveness in removing lead from wastewater.

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a Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
b Centre for Tropical Climate Change System, Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
c Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia

* Corresponding author, E-mail:

Received 30 Jan 2021, Accepted 20 Jul 2022