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Research articles

ScienceAsia 39(2013): 492-499 |doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2013.39.492


Examining the physicochemical properties and engine performance of biodiesel from whole seed and extracted kernels of egusi (Citrullus lanatus)


Y.M. Bandea,*, N.M. Adama, B.O. Jamareib, Y. Azmib, S.Z. Razalic

 
ABSTRACT:     Egusi seeds are one of the lesser known, but important sources of oil and protein in Africa. Egusi was grown in Malaysia to observe its adaptation to the local environment and to characterize the properties and biodiesel qualities of its seed oil. Oil from dehulled egusi seed (DESO) and whole egusi seed (WESO) were characterized. Extraction from both samples was done by Soxhlet extractor using n-hexane, and transesterified with KOH. Mean methyl ester (ME) yields from three replications averaged 87.3% and 86.7% for DESO-ME and WESO-ME, with cetane numbers of 52.54 and 53.06, respectively. Kinematic viscosities of 4.37 mm2/s and 4.39 mm2/s were found for WESO-ME and DESO-ME, respectively, making the former suitable as a bio-lubricant. Average flash points of DESO-ME and WESO-ME were 145.3 °C and 142.7 °C, with mean densities of 876.7 kg/m3 and 871.0 kg/m3, respectively. Six fatty acids were identified via gas chromatography. Total saturated and total unsaturated fatty acids were 20% and 80% for DESO-ME, and 21% and 79% for WESO-ME. Engine performance tests using pure diesel oil (PDO), B5 (5% biodiesel, 95% fossil diesel) and B10 (10% biodiesel, 90% fossil diesel) were carried out. Results showed that B5 and B10 of WESO-ME were better than DESO-MEs. The WESO-ME B5 was very similar in performance to PDO. The torques generated by PDO and WESO-ME B5 were the same. The latter had a lower exhaust temperature. However, power output from WESO-ME B5 was lower (by 0.02 kW) and fuel consumption higher by 7% than for PDO.

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a Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Putra University, Malaysia 43400, Sri Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
b Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Putra University, Malaysia 43400, Sri Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
c Material Characterization Laboratories, ITMA, Putra University, Malaysia 43400, Sri Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

* Corresponding author, E-mail: ymbande@yahoo.com

Received 5 Mar 2013, Accepted 8 Jul 2013